'Maximum test': Obama's pick for Supreme Court vacancy challenges GOP opposition
Garland, 63, is currently chief judge of the US Court of Appeals in the District of Columbia. Obama previously considered him for Supreme Court nominations in 2009 and 2010.
Republicans in the Senate have already said they will not hold confirmation hearings to vote on the nominee. The partisan protest against the president appointing a Supreme Court justice during his final months in office has clashed with bipartisan praise which Garland has received in the past.
Garland previously worked in the Justice Department under President George H.W. Bush before being appointed by President Bill Clinton to the US Court of Appeals.