Division of powers
The Prime Minister’s responsibilities are mainly domestic. He is directly answerable to both the president and the majority party in the State Duma. Civilian ministries, like education and health, report to the prime minister, and he is there to implement policy rather than set it.
The president, on the other hand, is a military and international figurehead. He’s Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, controls the Security Council, which oversees Russia’s defence and security. He has the power to declare a state of emergency or impose military law. He sets foreign policy, and appoints the head of the Central Bank.